Most Popular Marble And Granite

Daniel Pivko

Department of Geology and Paleontology,
Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia, Europe


This publication presents the most-offered marble and granite dimension stones on the Internet which qualities are described in tables with an alphabetical order of natural stones. In the beginning there are
definitions of the natural stone types and term explanations. The stones are described from a different point of view than the usual viz. Commercial name, other commercial names, country, petrographic type, geological age, water absorption, similar stones, and basis of name.

The First Table presents about 150 of the world`s most popular commercial granites. About 100 of the world`s most popular commercial marbles are recorded in the Second Table. The Third Table shows the 50 most popular American-Canadian commercial marble and granite.

The tables can help stone specialists, sellers, designers, architects, and their customers to orient in a jungle of stone commercial names and commercial and scientific stone types. The data is based on my own research and revaluation of hundreds web pages and catalogues. The parts of the article were published in FindStone and in CDOS India. Your questions, comments, corrections and additions are welcomed. A publisher of the article in printed form is sought.


Commercial and Scientific Granite- Skip To
Commercial and Scientific Marble- Skip To
Table explanations- Skip To



Brazilian Black Granite
Worlds Most Popular
Granite A to D
Juperana Crema Bordeaux
Worlds Most Popular
Granite E to L
Santa Cecilia Granite
Worlds Most Popular
Granite M to S
Tropic Brown Granite
Worlds Most Popular
Granite T to Z


Calacatta Marble
Worlds Most Popular
Marble A to C
Grigio Carnico Marble
Worlds Most Popular
Marble D to L
Marron Emperador Marble
Worlds Most Popular
Marble M to R
Tinos Green Marble
Worlds Most Popular
Marble S to Z


Academy Black Granite
Worlds Most Popular
American & Canadian

Term Explanations- Go Here
Most Important References- Go Here
© Daniel Pivko 2005

Commercial and Scientific Granite

Granites in the commercial sense are hard natural stones which are polishable and they must be worked on by harder tools than those used for marbles for cutting, shaping and polishing. They are usually suitable for internal and external use.

Commercial granites have different geological origins and minerals. Petrographically, they are either magmatic or metamorphic rocks. True granite, i.e. granite in the scientific sense, are only their one group. They are light magmatic rocks formed by crystalization from magma under the Earth's surface.


Commercial granites are mixtures of minerals and are composed of visible multicolored mineral grains. Grain of one color is typically encircled with grains of other colors, e.g. gray quartz is closed to pink orthoclase, white plagioclase and dark mica in true granite.

On the contrary, marbles in the commercial sense are either without visible grains of calcite (in limestones) or are composed of grouped calcite grains of similar color (in true marbles).

In commercial granite, the larger the grain size, the lower is the strength, and the greater is the brittleness, because mineral cleavage can manifest better in larger grains. A homogenous structure or a mildly-oriented one is a feature of magmatic rocks. Magmatic rocks have a similar appearance (structure, pattern) even over a large area of a slab.

Characteristic features of metamorphic rocks is a pattern with bands, schlierens (streaks), or waves. Every part of a slab usually has a different appearance.

Each commercial granite contains feldspars of 6 Mohs Hardness of various colors – white, pink, red, yellow, brown, green and gray. Feldspar grains are typically not translucent and are with cleavage. Many granites, especially of lighter colors, contain quartz of 7 Mohs Hardness with gray (sometimes bluish, brownish) color and the grains are glassy translucent without cleavage.

Further, there are dark minerals such as hornblende, pyroxene and biotite with black, dark green, or dark brown colors. These minerals have larger specific gravity and a lower hardness than feldspars and quartz. Some granites (e.g. KASHMIR WHITE) contain garnet of an almost round shape and brown to dark-red color.

Marble and Granite Comparison

The more the quartz, the lighter the granite in color, the larger is the microcrack porosity (because of quartz volume decrease during crystalization), and so the lower is the strength, and the lower is the resistance to fire.

The darker the granite, the more are the dark minerals, and the heavier is the granite.

Granites are hard and not scratchable by a nail, knife, or glass piece unlike marbles. Depending on the feldspars and quartz portions, the total Mohs Hardness of granite is from 5.5 to 7. The darker the granite, the lesser is the quartz, and thus the lower is the hardness. Commercial granite is not affected by common organic acids such as a lemon acid and vinegar, contrary to marble.

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Commercial and Scientific Marble

Marbles in the widest commercial sense are softer natural stones than granite. The marbles are mostly polishable and they can be worked on by softer tools than those used for cutting, shaping, and polishing granite.

The most important mineral is calcite. They are usually suitable for interiors.

ONYX ONYX MARBLE (low absorption)
MARBLE (low absorption)

Many stone experts separate limestones, travertines, and onyx marbles as individual groups from commercial marbles.

Marbles in a narrower commercial sense are softer natural stones than granite, and more dense than limestone or travertine. Marble takes a good polish and are used for more graded purposes, mainly polished facing and flooring.

Limestone in a commercial sense are less dense, with a higher water absorption than marble. They are not generally well polishable and are usually used for less graded purposes, as building stones, or honed limestone flooring.

Travertine in a commercial sense are softer natural stones than granite with large pores. They can take a good polish after filling of pores and are used as building stones, flooring, and facing.

Onyx in a commercial sense are softer natural stones than granite, typically with distinct color bands. They can be translucent in thin slabs. Onyxes are well polishable and used for high graded purposes like marbles.

The boundary between marble and limestone in the commercial meaning are other than the boundary between marble and limestone in the scientific meaning. Marbles in the scientific sense (true marbles) are metamorphosed limestones or dolomites, they are only one group of commercial marbles (see table).

Limestones in a scientific sense (true limestones) are sedimentary rocks formed especially from biogenic fragments, less from precipitation from water.

Serpentine marbles are metamorphosed rocks created from a special type of igneous rocks.

Dolomites (dolostones), travertines, and onyx marbles in scientific sense are sedimentary rocks formed by chemical precipitation.

Commercial marbles (in the widest sense) are medium hard and scratchable by a nail, knife or glass piece unlike granite. Depending on the calcite, dolomite and serpentine portions, the total Mohs Hardness for this group is from 3 to 4.

In commercial marbles, the larger pore amount, the less is the strength. In true marble or in true limestone, the larger the grain size, the lower is the strength, and the greater is the brittleness, because mineral cleavage can manifest better in larger grains.

The pattern of commercial marbles is very changeable against granites. Basic property of true limestone, onyx marble, and travertine is bedding – the parallel arrangement of particles (manifested in grain size, color, or shape). Especially limestones and some true marbles can be cut by veins of different directions. Many limestones contain visible fossil remnants. True marbles and onyx marbles are composed of visible calcite (aragonite, dolomite) crystals like granulated sugar.

On the contrary, limestones and travertines are without markable calcite crystals or grains. Only some parts as fossils or veins can be with crystals. True marbles have grainy, cloudy, streaky, banded, wavy, brecciated (broken pieces) patterns.

Commercial marbles (except of serpentinites), are affected by common organic acids such as a lemon acid and vinegar, contrary to granite. They react better with salt acid (HCl) and other common acids. Commercial marbles are not suitable for external use because acid rains (and every rains in less portion) contain acids, which decay stones. Water absortion of limestone is larger than common granite, therefore they are better destroyed by frost.

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Table Explanations

In the first column, the most frequently used or the most suitable names are presented alphabetically. In the table with the Most Popular Marbles the COMMERCIAL TYPE is also presented in first column.

In this column typical colors are presented according to their importance. Some variations are possible.

White Pure K-feldspars and plagioclases Pure calcite, aragonite, dolomite, quartz, (some clay minerals)
Gray Quartz, Ca-plagioclases Increasing admixture of organic matter, graphite, microscopic pyrite, micas
Black Pyroxenes, hornblendes
Pink to Red K-feldspars, hematite, garnet Increasing admixture of hematite (ferric oxide)
Beige, Yellow to Brown K-feldspars, limonite Increasing admixture of limonite or similar minerals (ferric hydrate)
Green Olivine, plagioclases, hornblendes (amphiboles), chlorites Serpentine in serpentinites and serpentine marbles; generally admixture of ferrous minerals (e.g. chlorite)
Blue Sodalite, dumortierite; sometimes quartz or feldspars (bluish) Some optical effects of calcite

As mentioned, dimension stones have different origin and composition. They were created by magmatic, sedimentary, and metamorphic process.

MAGMATIC ROCKS were formed by crystalization from magma. Many commercial granites are magmatic (igneous) rocks created some kilometers under the earth‘s surface. These so-called plutonic rocks are composed of visible mineral grains of equal size (e.g. RUBY RED) or some grains larger than others - porphyritic structure (e.g. ROSSO SANTIAGO). There are also volcanic rocks formed from lava on the surface, but they are included in commercial stones, not in commercial granite because of their qualities.

The grains in plutonic rocks are typically without orientation (e.g. BLANCO CRISTAL), but there are also oriented plutonic rocks (e.g. SOLAR WHITE, OCONEE).

Part of magma – so called lava crystalizes on the Earth‘s surface as volcanic rocks. These rocks do not belong to commercial granite group because they are not well polishable and have large water absorption.

Classification of plutonic magmatic rocks are based on mineral content as follows:

Granite group -rich in quartz (20–60%) and feldspars (K-feldspars, Na-Ca-feldspars – plagioclases).

  • Granite – feldspars (K-feldspars more than plagioclases), quartz, a little mica. It is of light gray, pink, red, white, yellow, brown color.
  • Alkali granite – feldspars (K-feldspars and Na-plagioclases), quartz, a little mica and amphibole (e.g. ASA BRANCA). It is typically of light color.
  • Granodiorite – feldspars (plagioclase more than K-feldspar), quartz, a little dark mica – biotite (e.g. BARRE GREY). It is mainly of gray color.
  • Pegmatite – very coarse rock of granite composition (e.g. AZUL ARAN) created in dykes (veins).

Syenite group - rich in K-feldspars with less plagioclase and quartz (up to 20%).

  • Syenite - feldspars (K-feldspars more than plagioclases), less biotite, hornblende (e.g. CAFE BAHIA).
  • Alkali syenite - feldspars (K-feldspars and Na-plagioclases), less biotite, hornblende and pyroxene (e.g. CAFE IMPERIAL).
  • Larvikite (type of alkali syenite) – special feldspars, small quantity of quartz, pyroxene, magnetite (e.g. BLUE PEARL).
  • Monzonite - feldspars (K-feldspars = plagioclases), less biotite, hornblende, pyroxene.
  • Sodalite syenite – mainly feldspars (K-feldspars, plagioclases) and sodalite of blue color (e.g. AZUL BAHIA)

Diorite group - rich in plagioclase, biotite, hornblende and pyroxene. It is usually of dark-gray color.

  • Diorite - plagioclase, biotite, hornblende and pyroxene, small amount of K-feldspar and quartz (probably PADANG DARK).
  • Quartz diorite - plagioclase, quartz, biotite, and hornblende, small amount of K-feldspar (e.g. NERO TIJUCA).

Gabbro group - rich in plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine. It is usually of dark-gray to black colors.

  • Gabbro, norite - plagioclase, pyroxene and less olivine (e.g. IMPALA BLACK).
  • Anorthosite – plagioclase, small quantity of pyroxene and olivine (e.g. VOLGA BLUE).
  • Dolerite – fine-grained rock of gabbro composition formed in dykes (e.g. ABSOLUTE BLACK). Older name is diabase. It is transition between gabbro and basalt.

Charnockite group is rich in feldspars (K-feldspars, plagioclases) with less quartz and pyroxene (e.g. CALEDONIA, VERDE UBATUBA). The rocks from this special group can be mainly compared with syenite group or granite group according to their composition of feldspars.

A table showing the composition of the most frequent
magmatic rocks used as commercial granites is below:
Minerals Plagioclases
0 – 10 %
10 – 35 %
35 – 65 %
65 – 90 %
90 – 100 %
20 – 60 %
5 – 20 %
Empty Granite Space Empty Granite Space Empty Granite Space Empty Granite Space QUARTZ DIORITE
0 – 5 %


  1. Plagioclases are from total feldspar content.
  2. Quartz is from total light minerals (quartz and feldspars.)
  3. Red = Granite Group
  4. Violet = Syenite Group
  5. Blue = Diorite Group
  6. Green = Gabbro Group
  7. Charnockites are especially similar to granite or syenite groups.
  8. Blank areas are rocks almost unused as natural stones.

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SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. Rocks on the Earth`s surface are exposed to weathering. They are fragmented and chemically changed. Formed fragments and solutions are the most often transported by rivers to sea.

  • Clastic sediments are accumulated from rock fragments, e.g. gravel, sand or clay.
  • Chemical sediments are formed by chemical precipitation of solutions - as some limestones or salts.
  • Organic sediments are created from accumulation of animal or plant bodies, e.g. coquina or peat.

Most of the sediments are deposited in the shape of beds, which are later compacted and cemented to coherent sedimentary rocks by pressure of overlying beds and other processes (lithification). Gravel was changed to conglomerate, sand to sandstone, clay to shale, and shell acumulation to limestone.

A large part of commercial marbles are limestones formed especially from anorganic remnants of organisms. Some of them were created by precipitation from fresh (travertines, onyxes) or marine water (oolitic limestones) or accumulation of limestone fragments (carbonate breccias). Some limestones were chemically alternated to dolomites (dolostones).

Sandstones are also of sedimentary origin. They are not included to commercial marbles, but to commercial stones.

Limestones are mostly of marine origin. They are composed of calcite (calcium carbonate) or less of aragonite (other modification of calcium carbonate).

During lithification when pressure and temperature are raised under overlying beds, some calcite grains and fossils were dissolved and later joined by calcium carbonate cement. Pore spaces were diminished and strength was increased.

In some limestones, the accumulations of siliceous materials – chert nodules or layers, are created during lithification. During pressure and temperature action zig-zag lines (stylolites) are formed in some limestones caused by uneven dissolution (e.g. FILETTO ROSSO).

Important factor for compact limestone origin is time and higher temperature and pressure during mountain formation. Folded and deformed limestones are usually more compacted than undeformed ones. During deformation many limestones were broken to pieces and then fissures among them were filled by calcite veinlets and veins of different orientation (e.g. ROJO CORALITO).

Limestones which were uplifted close to Earth`s surface are affected by water, which dissolves limestone (and also marble) beds and caverns and cavities are formed. Cherts, stylolites and cavities are defects during limestone and marble working.

Limestones are a mixture of calcium carbonate crystals of different size:

  • microscopic particles of calcite (aragonite) up to some tens of micron
  • grains of fossil remnants and their pieces
  • grains of ooids (minute round particles formed in dynamic tropical seas)
  • grains of pellets (minute particles as product of animal metabolism) Between particles are minute pore spaces that can be filled in different portion by cement.

The following limestone types can be separated:

  • Fossiliferous (bioclastic, skeletal, shelly) Limestones are composed from fossils or their parts. The limestones contain various shells and skeletons, like shells, clams, mussels (ROJO ALICANTE), special shells – rudists (AURISINA), algae (JURA MARMOR), algal oncoids (BOTTICINO), crinoids - sea lilies (TENNESSEE MARBLE), and large single-celled organisms - foraminifers (SUNNY with nummulites)
  • Micritic Limestones (microcrystaline limestones) are made of mud size calcite particles of chemogenic or biogenic origin and microscopic skeletons of foraminifers (ROSA PERLINO)
  • Nodular Limestones as a type of micritic limestones are composed of rounded nodules to some cm formed probably during solid rock formation (ROSSO VERONA)
  • Stromatolitic Limestones – banded limestones created especially by blue-green algae activity (SERPEGGIANTE)
  • Oolitic Limestones contain ooides (CORDOVA LIMESTONE)
  • Limestone Breccias (carbonate breccias) are rocks of cemented angular fragments of older limestones, e.g. destructed parts of coral reefs (BRECCIA PERNICE).

Dolomites (dolostones) are composed of dolomite mineral domination. Dolomites were formed, when Mg-rich solutions influenced calcareous sediments. This process performs during special conditions inside very shallow marine sediments in hot dry climate, today only in the Persian gulf.

Dolomites are usually harder, heavier and more brittle and appear more fractured than limestones (e. g. dolomite breccias – MARRON EMPERADOR). There are transitions from limestone to dolomite:

100 – 90%
90 – 50%
50 – 10%
10 – 0%
10 – 0%
50 – 10%
90 - 50%
100 - 90%

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METAMORPHIC ROCKS were formed by the recrystalization of sedimentary or magmatic rocks under the Earth‘s surface during raised pressure and temperature conditions, from low to high grade metamorphism.

Metamorphism follows lithification in higher temperature and pressure. Transition between lithification and metamorphism is in 100 – 200 ºC span. The appearance of new minerals is a substancial feature of metamorphism.

Mainly high metamorphic rocks such as Gneisses belong to commercial granite.

Commercial Slates are metamorphic rocks exposed to low metamorphism.

True marbles, serpentine marbles and serpentinites of the metamorphic origin are commercial marbles.

Gneiss group contains rocks with high pressure and high temperature metamorphism, which have strongly oriented, streaked (schlieren), banded, and wavy structures such as paragneisses, orthogneisses, garnet gneisses, migmatites and granulites.

Migmatites and granulites are added to gneiss group only because of their similar structures.

Streaks, bands or waves are usually created of darker minerals – the most frequently of dark mica (JUPARANA CLASSICO and other JUPARANAS).

Bands and rings of rusty color in some stones are the result of weathering, when hot surface water in a tropical climate penetrates to the rock and alternates minerals with iron content (e.g. GOLDEN WAVE, JUPARANA CASABLANCA).

Gneiss Group

  • Paragneisses (e.g. RAW SILK) were formed by strong metamorphism of clayey sedimentary rocks (slates, clayey sandstones).
  • Orthogneisses (e.g. GIALLO VENEZIANO) were created by strong metamorphism of light magmatic rocks (granite group, light volcanics).
  • Garnet gneisses (e.g. SANTA CECILIA) are rich in garnet and can be formed like para- or ortho-gneisses.
  • Migmatites (e.g. RAINBOW) were formed by partial melting of gneisses .
  • Granulites were created by very strong metamorphism (higher one than at orthogneisses) of mainly light magmatic rocks (e.g. KASHMIR WHITE).

Metagabbros (e.g. LAKE SUPERIOR GREEN) are weakly metamorphosed gabbros – magmatic rocks with green color caused by chlorite.

Metaconglomerates (e.g. VERDE MARINACE) are formed by metamorphism of conglomerates - sedimentary rocks composed of rounded grains over 2 mm (4 mm in Europe).

Quartzites are almost exclusively composed of quartz, metamorphosed from quartz sandstones (e.g. AZUL MACAUBAS). They are sometimes separated as an individual commercial stone group, when they are not polishable and splited as slates.

Marbles (in petrographic sense, true marbles)
Marbles are metamorphosed limestones or dolomites. During metamorphism when pressure and temperature are raised, calcite crystals of limestones were further reduced in number and increased in size. Crystals interlock closely to give increased strength and decreased pore spaces. Calcite marbles (or simply marbles) are formed from limestones and dolomite marbles from dolomites. Some new minerals appeared in marbles created from admixtures in limestones. Marbles have granular appearance from about 0.1 to some milimeters crystals.

Patterns can be homogenous (THASSOS WHITE), banded (MAKRANA DOONGARI), streaked (VOLAKAS), veined (GRIGIO CARNICO), brecciated (ARABESCATO), or cloudy (NUVOLATO APUANO).

The larger the crystals, the less the strength, and the more brittle are marbles. Dolomite marbles are usually harder, heavier, more brittle, less polishable and with a higher water absorption than limestone marbles. Dolomite mineral is more resistant against acids than calcite.

They are green metamorphic rocks composed of serpentine (Mg silicate) domination. They are formed by metamorphism of ultrabasic igneous rocks (e.g. peridotites).

Serpentine marbles (ophicalcites)
They are green metamorphic rocks composed of calcite and serpentine (some are redish with hematite admixture). These mixed rocks were created during mountain building processes similarly like serpentinites.

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The age of the stone is determined in the table by the geological time unit when the stone was created by the geological process. In some cases the older the stone the larger strength and smaller water absorption is presented. Original rocks for metamorphic rock can be formed much early than metamorphism changed the rocks. For instance, limestones can be created in Paleozoic, but they were metamorphosed in Terciery.

The basic geological periods with their ages are:

  • Quaternary (0 - 2 million years)
  • Terciery
  • Neogene (2 – 25 million years)
  • Paleogene (25 – 65 million years)
  • Mesozoic
  • Cretaceous (65 – 135 million years)
  • Jurassic (135 – 205 million years)
  • Triassic (205 – 250 million years)
  • Paleozoic
  • Permian (250 – 295 million years)
  • Carboniferous (295 – 355 million years) Pennsylvanian and Mississippian in USA
  • Devonian (355 – 415 million years)
  • Silurian (415 – 440 million years)
  • Ordovician (440 - 495 million years)
  • Cambrian (495 - 540 million years)
  • Proterozoic (540 - 2500 million years)
  • Archean (2500 - 4550 million years)

The percentage of water absorption into natural stone by weight is determined by the ratio of absorbed water weight and stone weight. Values are reevaluated from many sources and they are rounded off. Values in brackets are less reliable because of small amount of data or estimation according similar stones. Stage of limestone compactness is presented at the column.

In the column, less used or less suitable names and varieties are presented. Many of them are not quite correct because the word order is reversed or they are incorrect because of wrong spelling or have been mistaken for another stone.

This column can help stone specialists and customers to find similar stones. A stone is similar to another natural stone by its appearance: color(s), grain size, and particle pattern (arrangement). A stone is partially similar to another one, when some feature is not such evident. In this column, there are also additional stones not covered in the Commercial Name and Other Names columns. Use Ctrl+F or Find in Page feature of your computer to find your stone in the Other Names or Similar Stones columns.

The commercial names have different origins. The majority of names are derived from a geographic area or color. The geographic site could be the quarry place, nearby town or the state.

The color is described in English, Italian, Spanish, or other languages. Some stones have their names according to colors of precious stones, plants, or animals.

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Term Explanations

Al – Aluminium
Algae – plants: some of them produce calcium carbonate in their tissue
Alumosilicates – silicates, where Al partially substitutes SiAmphiboles – hornblendes
Aragonite – mineral: calcium carbonate CaCO3, other crystal structure than calcite
B - Boron
Biotite – dark mica – K, Mg, Fe, Al silicate
Bronzite – pyroxene type
Ca - Calcium
Calcite – mineral: calcium carbonate CaCO3, other crystal structure than aragonite
Calcium carbonate - CaCO3, calcite or aragonite according structure
Cherts – siliceous sedimentary rocks; siliceous layers or nodules inside limestones
Chlorites – group of minerals: silicate similar to micas with aluminium, magnesium and ironCl - Chlorine
Cleavage – the tendency of some mineral crystals to break along definite planes of weakness
Conglomerate – sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments over 2 mm
Cordierite – mineral – Mg, Al silicate
Dolomite – mineral: calcium magnesium carbonate CaMg (CO3)2
Dumortierite – mineralof blue colour - Al, B silicate
Fe - Iron
Feldspars – light minerals – K, Na, Ca alumosilicates
Foraminifers - single-celled organisms
Fossils – remnants of shells, skeletons or tests of organisms; also impressions of organisms
Garnet – mineral of red to brown color – Fe, Mg, Ca, Al silicate
Graphite – mineral: modification of carbon C
Hematite – mineral: ferric oxide Fe2O3
Hornblendes (Amphiboles) – group of dark minerals – Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Al silicates
K – Potassium
K – feldspars – orthoclase or microcline minerals - K alumosilicates
Limonite – mineral: ferric hydrate FeO(OH).nH2O
Lithification - process by which unconsolidated rock-forming materials are converted into consolidated or coherent state. Compaction - pressure decreases pore space between particles. Cementation - deposition of minerals in pores
Metamorphic (metamorphosed) rocks - sedimentary or igneous (magmatic) rocks that were altered by heat and/or pressure
Mg - Magnesium
Micas – scaled minerals – muscovite and biotite
Micron - micrometer, one millionth of a meter
Mohs Hardness - determined according relative scale which consists of ten minerals arranged in order of their increasing hardness
Muscovite – light mica – K, Al silicate
Na - Sodium
Nodules – oval up to some cm particles formed during sedimentation or lithification
Nummulites – lens-like or coin-like large single-celled organisms
Olivine – dark mineral – Mg, Fe silicate
Oncoids – oval coated grains of calcium carbonate formed by algae of foraminifera
Oriented granites – columnar or tabular minerals are distributed according to a certain orientation
Petrography – branch of geology concerned with rock description
Plagioclases - minerals – type of feldspars - Na, Ca alumosilicates
Plutonic rocks - formed by crystalization from magma under earth`s surface in large massifs
Porphyritic – the texture in which larger crystals or grains occur in smaller ones
Pyrite – mineral: sulphide FeS2
Pyroxenes – group of dark minerals - Ca, Mg, Fe, Al silicates
Quartz – mineral – silicon oxide
Rudists – special Cretaceous reef-formed shells
Serpentine – mineral: hydrated silicate of magnesium and iron
Sedimentary rocks - formed from deposition of rock fragments and fossil remnants, or precipitation from solutions
Schlieren – the texture with discontinuous almost parallel bands
Sodalite – mineral of especially blue colour – Na, Al silicate with Cl
Stylolites – zig-zag lines which are remnants after uneven dissolution of limestones; contain clay minerals and ferric oxides and hydrates
Translucent – light passes through the mineral but the object viewed is not clearly outlined
Veins, veinlets – areas of various directions which cross rock (on stone slab like lines); fissures formed mainly by rock deformation were filled by calcite
Weathering – processes of mechanical disintegration and chemical decomposition of surface rocks.

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Most Important References

Acae, Acagorcian Z. A. et al.: Oblicovochnye Kamni Sovetskogo Sojuza - Aiastan, Adenwala Marbles Pvt. Ltd., Adnan Aygun Mermer Ltd., Adolfo Forti SpA, Aksoylar Mermer Co, Albion Stone Quarries Ltd., Alicante Brazilian Granites Export, Allied Supply, Alpay Mermer, Alpha Intellekt Service, Alwaystone, Apostoli Marmi, Artstone, Assocave, Associação Brasileira da Indústria de Rochas Ornamentais, Associação Brasil-Ucrânia, Athenian Marble Ltd., Atlanta Marble Co., Inc., Avalon Stone Products Inc., Azorin y Paya Ltd.,

Balduini Marmi, Barracuda Granite Tiles, Baustoffsammlung der Fakultät für Architektur der TU München, Best Stone, B.H.B. sro, BIECO Stone Co.,Ltd, Bradley F.: Natural stone. A Guide to Selection. Studio Marmo, Brechal - Mármores e Brechas do Algarve SA, BRE Projects.bre.co.uk, Bresciana Marmi Spa, Breton Spa, Brocco Graniti,

Cameli Marmi, Canadian Stone Association, Cannone Marmi, Carli Cav. Oreste & C. SAS, Cave Vianini Srl, CDOS: Stones of India, Cekicler Marble Co, Cella Marmi, Cereser Marmi SpA, Champlain Marble Company, Chariot International Pvt. Ltd., China Granite, Chicopee Mason Supplies, Cold Spring Granite Inc., Col-marmi Srl, Commerce sro, Consorcio Produttori Marmo Botticino Classico, Cored Trading, Cosentina Marmi, Cosmo Marble S.A., Craglia Marmi, Crystal Granite & Marble Ltd., Cuellar Stone, Cutting Edge Tile and Marble Corp.,

Dakota Granite, Dan Marble, Decorate in Detail, Deer Isle Granite Co., Department of Mines and Geology – Rajasthan, Dermitzakis Greek White Marble, Die Internationale Naturwerksteinkartei,

El Batal Marble and Granite Co., Elberton Granite Association Inc., Elce Marmi, EMCO Emdad Mineral Corporation, Enobras.com, EST France, Euroferman Marbles & Granites International, Eurofo Co., Euroroca SA, Eurostone Marble and Granite, Inc., Everything & More,

Fabulous International Group Corporation, Faculdade de Arquitectura da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Federatie van de Belgische Natuursteengroothandelaars, Felekis Marble, Felice Chiro Industria Marmi Srl, Fenix VP sro, F.H.L. Kiriakidis Group, Finnish Natural Stone Association, Finska Steinindustri Ab, Fletcher Granite Co., F.lli Mattei Marmi Srl, F.lli Salvatore, Foredi Marmi, Fosenstein As, Freejack Bros,

Gam-Robert Ceramic Tile, Inc., Gem Granites, Geophysics at Rensselaer Home Page, Geowissenschaftlicher Dienst O.O. Dillmann, Gextrais Inc., GMC Spa, Gourlis Group Marble Enterprises, Granicor, Granital Siena Srl, Granite Warehouse, Graniti Conrad Srl, Graniti Fiandre, Granit Ltd., Granitos Artemármol, Granitos de Bajadoz SA, Granitos Rosa Valencia, Grupo San Marino, Guida tecnica per l`impero razionale del marmo. A cura dell industria Italiana del marmo Rizzoli grafica, Guinet-Derriaz,

HAI Industriedienst GmbH, HAMO d.o.o., Hatzis Marble, Hong Kong New Guangyan Co., Ltd.,

ICONS 2000, IMMIB, Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana Limestone Institute of America, Industrial Stones Italy Srl, Industrie Caucci, Instituto Geologico e Mineiro de Portugal, International Centre for Advancement of Manufacturing Technology, International Co. for Marble and Granite, Interock Oy, IPEK Natursteine,

Janotas and Simoes Ltd., Jerusalem Stone, JerUSAlem Stone, Jose A. Garcia Moya Sl, Juramarmor und Solnhofener Natursteinplatten,

Kamen Pazin, Kar-mer Co. Ltd., Kartas Marble SA, Kelgran Ltd., KLH Trading and Supplies, Kocak Natural Stone Group, Komi Turkish Marbles and Granite and Tile,

Landi Giocondo & C. Srl, Larvik Granite As, Levantina Natural Stone, Listagranit SA, Lunamar Marble and Stone, Lundhs Labrador As,

Marble and Stone Expo, Marbleguide, Marbleinfoline.com, Marblenet Sl, Marbres i Granits Rius, Marcel Lauber, Marcolini Marmi, Marfilpe - Mármores e Granitos, Lda., Margraf Spa, Marmifera Irpina Srl, Marmi Lanza Spa, Marmi Orosei, Marmi Pellegrini, Marmi Scartabelli, Marmo Apricena.com, Marmol Azul Cielo Argentina, Marmol Compac, Marmores Ramalhosa, Marmorexport Ltda., Masselli Marmi, Max-Balz GmbH, Mineralszone.com, Ministre des Ressources naturelles, de la Faune et des Parcs: Localization of producing mines, architectural stone quarries and peat bogs in Quebec, Ministry of Northern Development and Mines Ontario, MKK Holding, Modul, Mondo Marmi, Inc., Müller F.: INSK Kompakt,

National Building Granite Quarries Association Inc., NatursteinNet.de, Naturstein Zimmer, Natursteinwerk Lenk GmbH, Nelson Granite Ltd., Nemer SA, NGI Natursteincenter Berlin GmbH., New England Stone, Nomad Energy Ltd., North Carolina Granite Corp., Norwegian Rose AS, Nuova Isorno Graniti Srl,

Palestinian Union of Stone and Marble Industry, Palin Granit Oy, Pardal Monteiro Marmores, Paulino`s Marmoraria, PC Bangur Minerals Ltd., Peltsman Corporation, Perazzo P.B.- Perazzo G.P.: Stone Quarries and Beyond. Webmaster California, Peval SA, Pierres et Marbres de Wallonie, Pietra della Lessinia s.n.c., Pittsburg State University: Elephant Rocks State Park, Pivko D.: Natural Stones in Earths History. Acta Geol. Univ. Comen., Polistone Apuana s.r.l., Polycor Quarry Division, Polystone Co., Ltd., Primary Industries and Resources SA, Pro Naturstein, PS Craftmanship, Purbeck Stone Haysoms and Landers Quarries,

Querciolaie Rinascente,

Rinser Natursteinwerk, Robs Granite Page, Rock of Ages, Roc Maquina Sl, Rinser Natursteinwerk, Robs Granite Page, Rochas Ornamentais Portuguesas, Romanense de Marmoles,

Salvini Marmi, Savema Group Spa, Sayakci Marbles, Semap Group, Semenchenko Yu. V. et al.: Tzvetnye Kamni Ukrainy - Budivelhnik, Shalom Granites Bangalore, SIAL Concern, Sigma Corporation, Siskos Group, Slezsky kamen, Sociedade Marmifera Brasileira Ltda, Societa del travertino Romano, Solnhofen Stone, South Texas Stone Co., SP Ace Enterprises, SSH Design, Stilmarmo Srl, StoneInfo.Com, Stone Quarries and Beyond, Stone-Sales.com, Stone Selection, Stone Showcase CC, Stones of India – CDOS,

Taivassalon Graniitti Oy, Tamponi Paolo - Marmi e Graniti di Sardegna, Tekmar Mermer, Temmer Mermer, Tendenza Marmoles y Granitos, Tennessee Marble Co., Thassos Marble, Transgranitos - Mármores e Granitos do Alto Tâmega Lda., Trivedi Marbles, Turkisk Sten HB., turkishmarble.com,

Union Granit AB, Union Trade Marble, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro: Projeto MultiMin, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, University of Wisconsin – Madison: Igneous Rocks, University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee: Rock Description Page, USGS National Geologic Map Database, U. S. Marble, US - Mexican Development Corporation,

Vaben SIA, Volakas Marble,

Windavar Co. Ltd., Wesleyan University, Winkler E. M.: Stone in Architecture. Springer Verlag, World Wide Stone Corp.,

Xiamen Jiangshi Imp & Exp Co, Ltd.,

Ylamaan Graniitti Oy.

Thanks belongs to Vinay Somani from India and Maurizio Bertoli from USA for their comments and advices, to Prof. Milan Misik from Bratislava, who filled me with enthusiasm for the topic, to my wife for family wellbeing, and God for all.

Daniel Pivko Daniel Pivko was born in 1962 in Slovakia, part of former Czechoslovakia in central Europe. He finished Comenius University in 1986. After 5 years as a mapping geologist in Geological survey, he teaches Physical geology in Comenius University, Department of Geology and Paleontology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia. He is married and has three children. He published articles and books in sedimentology, natural stones, didactics of geology and science vs. Christian religion relations. In the last seven years he intensively dedicates to research of petrography and geology of natural stones. He acts as a expert in Advice wanted in FindStone Internet Limited. He created and published databases of the uses of marble and granite.
© Daniel Pivko 2005


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